As part of USAID’s Quick Response Technical Assistance Task Order under the Integrated Water and Coastal Resources Management IQC II (Water II IQC) a number of assessments were conducted to understand the status and trends in the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector in priority countries. USAID’s WASH Sustainability Index Tool (SIT) was applied to projects in Ethiopia and Liberia.

This report addresses the adaptation of the SIT tool for an emergency context either in Ethiopia or elsewhere. The report describes the theory behind the adaptation of the SIT and presents the factors which influence the sustainability of emergency response interventions. It also presents generic frameworks for four emergency WASH interventions.

The remaining sections of the document provide a brief background on the challenges which are common in emergency response programs, such as the OFDA/Ethiopia rapid response programme (Section 2), background on the SIT (Section 3), rationale for the adaptation of the SIT to an emergency context (Section 4), description of the new disaster risk reduction factor and the options for analysis under the new Emergency Sustainability Index Tool (Emergency SIT) (Section 5). The four frameworks which were developed are provided in Annex 1.


Ryan Schweitzer, Harold Lockwood, Richard Ward (Aguaconsult), Richard Luff (independent)


USAID, Tetra Tech


Water, Sanitation and Hygiene, Humanitarian Response


Ethiopia, Liberia



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